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There has been broad fallout from Russian efforts to hack the 2016 U.S. election, including sanctions, worsening relations between the two countries and a continued cloud over Donald Trump’s presidency.

But in Europe such attacks are hardly new. The first “political” cyberattack thought to have been carried out by Russia in Europe was in 2007 in Estonia.

Since then, other Russia-linked targets have included Ukraine’s election commission, the German parliament, and the campaign of French President Emmanuel Macron.

On this edition of Global Journalist, a look at Russia’s hacking strategy and European efforts to head off the Kremlin’s use of technology to influence foreign elections.


AP Photo

Since France banned women from wearing veils that covered the face in public in 2011, a growing number of European nations have passed similar restrictions.

Belgium, Bulgaria and Austria have passed similar so-called "burqa bans," while Germany, Switzerland, Norway and other countries are considering such legislation.

The laws have sparked a public debate about religious freedom, feminism and xenophobia. On this edition of Global Journalist, a look at how Europe's courts, legislators and public are grappling with the debate about the meaning of Islamic dress in Western societies.


Emergency Response Centre International (Courtesy)

Back in 2015, the immigration crisis in Europe was in headlines all over the world. Since then the numbers of people crossing the by sea to the continent has declined from more than 1 million annually to just 126,000 through early September of this year, according to the U.N.'s migration agency. 

But many problems remain unresolved. Not least for the tens of thousands of migrants who arrived in Europe over the past few years and still find themselves in legal limbo. On this edition of Global Journalist, we look at Europe's tortured efforts to address the problem, and get an up close view at conditions for migrants in France and Greece. 


AP

Republican nominee Donald Trump has commanded blanket media coverage since his run for U.S. president took off last year.

But it's not just Americans who have been glued to their screens when Trump's face appears. Government leaders and ordinary people around the world have taken notice as well.

On this edition of Global Journalist, we talk to reporters from around the world to gather the international reaction to Trump's proposals to ban Muslim immigration, cancel trade deals and consider pulling the U.S. out of NATO.


AP

In June, the United Kingdom will vote on whether it will remain part of the European Union.

For those who want out, the so-called “Brexit” would allow the U.K. to better control immigration and free it from onerous EU regulations. But opponents say it would devastate the the U.K. economy, with accounting firm PricewaterhouseCoopers saying it would cost the the country 142 billion dollars and almost one million jobs in the next four years.  

On this edition of Global Journalist, a look at the potential benefits and drawbacks of the UK leaving the EU, as well as what happens if the referendum fails.


AP

For months now, the world has watched as more than a million refugees and migrants from countries like Syria, Iraq and Afghanistan have risked their lives to try and find safe haven in Europe.

But this influx has created enormous tensions in the European Union about how many newcomers to accept and which countries should take them. Governments in Sweden and Germany have each taken in hundreds of thousands of refugees and migrants–and taken criticism both from other European states and their own people.

So, who foots the bill for settling the hundreds of thousands of immigrants? And if no one, where will these people go?


Yannis Liakos / AP Photo

Greece's last two bailouts failed to rescue the country. This week, European leaders approved a new $95 billion package for the debt-stricken country. For Greeks, it means more tax hikes and cuts to pensions and other public spending–an option they soundly rejected in a nonbinding referendum in July. Still some argue that this bailout is different than the previous two – and that it may set the country on the path to recovery.

Casey Morell / Global Journalist

The 9th of November is an important day in German history, for both highs and lows. It's the day the Berlin Wall fell in 1989, and it's the day the German states became a republic in 1918 before the end of World War I.

However, November 9 is also the anniversary of Kristallnacht –  the night of broken glass. On that night in 1938, the Nazis led riots through the cities of Germany. Jewish owned businesses were ransacked; their storefronts defaced with graffiti; their windows smashed. Nearly 30,000 Jews were arrested that night alone, and sent to concentration camps throughout the Reich. Historians widely consider Kristallnacht to be one of the first major events in the run-up to the Holocaust.