A Tumultuous Year, Seen Through North Korean Eyes
North Korea is preparing to launch a long-range rocket as it rounds off a tumultuous year marked by the sudden death of leader Kim Jong Il last December, the ascension of his 20-something son, and the humiliating failure of a rocket launch in April.
NPR recently interviewed five North Koreans in a northern Chinese city, gaining a rare glimpse of that eventful year through North Korean eyes. They were all visiting China legally, having left North Korea within the past few months.
Few North Koreans can forget the electrifying moment the stone-faced announcer on state-run television delivered a message they had never heard before: the first ever official admission of failure.
"The Earth observation satellite failed to enter orbit," the announcer acknowledged bluntly, as she admitted April's long-range rocket launch had not succeeded.
For many North Koreans, even the very possibility of failure was shocking, stunning, literally unbelievable.
"For us, it was something we just couldn't believe," a retired North Korean soldier who gave his name as Mr. Ryu tells NPR. He even privately questioned whether the government might have been lying. "We wondered if it actually had been successful, but they were just saying that it hadn't been successful. We wondered how we could fail at something into which we had put so much effort."
In another example of this trend of acknowledging difficulties, North Korea on Monday admitted there was a "technical deficiency" in the first-stage control engine module of its rocket. It's now extending the launch window by another week, until Dec. 29. The official news agency said technicians were "pushing forward" with preparations, indicating a delay rather than a cancellation.
Changes After Kim Jong Il's Death
Talking to reporters is risky for North Koreans, so NPR is using only the surnames of the people — all urban elites in their 50s — interviewed for this story.
Another interviewee, Mrs. Chon, remembers when she first heard the satellite launch had failed.
"I was heartbroken," she says. "Then people said it was possible for us to fail, when big countries also fail. The party told us not to doubt, that failure is necessary for success."
That message has been reinforced by state-run television, which has begun broadcasting sports events where the national team is beaten.
"[Before] we were never told if we lost sports matches," says Mrs. Chon. "Recently all matches are broadcast, whether we win or lose. Everybody watches them, because they appear on television."
This is just one of the changes the country has undergone following the sudden death last December of the reclusive leader Kim Jong Il, reportedly of a heart attack. Despite snow blanketing the ground, weeping mourners thronged the streets, wailing. Grief was mandatory, according to defector groups, with insincere mourners punished by as much as six months in labor camp.
Some of those I spoke to admitted to feeling ambivalent toward Kim Jong Il, or even openly hostile, blaming him for their suffering. His 17 years in power included a famine in the mid-1990s that killed as many as 3 million people, more than 10 percent of the population.
"Kim Jong Il had a big impact on people's lives," says a man who gives his name as Mr. Kim. "There was no food, no electricity, heavy industry died. His son, Kim Jong Un, may work for the people. But the good life is now gone. The people all know that, but they cannot speak out."
High Expectations For New Leader
Kim's mantle has been inherited by his son, Kim Jong Un, who is not yet 30. His leadership style is markedly different from his father's; he's showing himself to be more personable, as he cuddles babies and poses for pictures with families.
The younger Kim has been seen on public engagements with his young, fashionable wife, Ri Sol Ju, the first North Korean first lady to play a high-profile public role. In fact, some of the people interviewed by NPR say they were thunderstruck that Ri actually touched her husband in public, even walking arm in arm with him.
Kim Jong Un has visited new housing in Pyongyang, a new amusement park, a dolphinarium, all supposed signs of progress. Crucially for North Koreans, he has turned his focus to livelihood issues and has repeatedly vowed to improve people's lives.
There are high expectations of their new leader, who attended international school in Switzerland as a boy.
"He is very smart," says Mrs. Chon. "His way of seeing things is much wider, he's studied overseas, so he will probably follow international standards. He won't be a frog in a well. He's braver. In no time, trade with foreign countries will increase."
But skeptics point out that new housing is being built by university students, kept out of class to serve as unpaid labor. All of those I spoke to had heard rumors of economic reform, including a proposed system that might allow farmers to keep more of their harvests to themselves, but so far there has been no confirmation.
"There were expectations that reforms might be announced during the Supreme People's Assembly meeting this autumn ... but everyone was very disappointed," notes a woman called Mrs. Ju.
A Soul-Destroying Reality
For years, 2012 was seen as a turning point. The regime had promised that this year — the 100th anniversary of the birth of Kim Jung Un's grandfather and the country's founder, Kim Il Sung — was the year North Korea would become "strong and prosperous." For those who still dared hope, like Mrs. Kim, the reality is soul-destroying.
"We believed that in 2012 North Korea would become a strong country, where everyone would have enough to eat, and dogs would eat rice cakes. But life is harder now. I think there's no hope," she concludes with a sigh.
Those repeated promises of a "strong and prosperous country" could be one factor behind this latest rocket launch. After all, the year isn't over yet, and even technologically advanced South Korea hasn't launched a satellite. In the absence of other major achievements, North Korea's young leader may need this boost.
RENEE MONTAGNE, HOST:
North Korea is preparing to move forward and launch a long-range rocket by the end of this month. A successful launch would erase the humiliation of its failed attempt earlier in the year. NPR's Louisa Lim has had unusual access to five North Koreans in China, all of whom left the North just in the last few months. It's almost impossible to know how events like the failed rocket launch were viewed inside the reclusive country, but today Louisa brings us a rare glimpse at life through North Korean eyes.
LOUISA LIM, BYLINE: Within an hour of the rocket's launch in April, the world knew of its failure.
UNIDENTIFIED WOMAN #1: North Korea's long range rocket fell into the sea minutes after liftoff.
LIM: A few hours later, in an unprecedented step, North Koreans knew too.
UNIDENTIFIED WOMAN #2: (Foreign language spoken)
LIM: The Earth observation satellite failed to enter orbit, the stone-faced announcer intoned on state television. This was a first: the first official admission of failure. North Koreans were stunned, shocked. One retired soldier, Mr. Ryu, says he initially thought the government was lying. He's speaking from a safe house in China. He, like all the others I spoke to, want to return to North Korea. He's asked for his voice to be disguised for fear of the consequences.
MR. RYU: (Through translator) For us, it was something we just couldn't believe. We wondered if it actually had been successful, but they were just saying that it hadn't been successful. We wondered how we could fail at something into which we had put so much effort into.
(SOUNDBITE OF MUSIC)
LIM: News of failure, it seems, is no longer forbidden. The Olympic team had a heroes' welcome on their return to Pyongyang. But another interviewee, Mrs. Chon - who also asked for her voice to be changed - says this year, for the first time, the country heard about their defeats as well as their victories.
MRS. CHON: (Through translator) Recently, all matches are broadcast, whether we win or lose. When I first heard the satellite launch failed, I was heartbroken. Then the people said it was possible for us to fail when big countries also fail. The party told us not to doubt, that failure is necessary for success.
(SOUNDBITE OF MUSIC)
LIM: This change of attitude follows the sudden death last December of the reclusive leader Kim Jong-il.
(SOUNDBITE OF CRYING)
LIM: Weeping mourners thronged the streets, but grief is mandatory. Defector groups have reported insincere mourners were punished, some by labor camp.
Kim Jong-il's 17 years in power brought untold suffering to his people, including a famine in the mid '90s. No one knows how many died; some estimates put the figure as high as three million, more than 10 percent of the population. Speaking from the relative safety of China, one man, who gives his name as Mr. Kim, describes trust in government at a low.
MR. KIM: (Through translator) Kim Jong-il had a big impact on people's lives. There was no food, no electricity, heavy industry died. His son, Kim Jong-un, may work for the people. But the good life is now gone. The people all know that but they cannot speak out.
KIM JONG-UN: (Foreign language spoken)
LIM: The new leader, twenty-something Kim Jong-un, has a new style. In speeches, his focus has been on improving people's lives. Even giving speeches is an innovation; his father's voice was only ever broadcast once in 17 years.
(SOUNDBITE OF CHEERING)
LIM: The young Kim has been feted as he inspects new housing in Pyongyang, a new amusement park, a dolphinarium - all supposed signs of progress. At his side, in another first, a first lady, his fashionable young wife, Ri Sol-ju. Many, like Mrs. Chon, have high expectations of their new leader.
CHON: (Through translator) He is very smart. His way of seeing things is much wider. He's studied overseas so he will probably follow international standards. He won't be a frog in a well. He's braver. And in no time, trade with foreign countries will increase.
LIM: But skeptics point out that new housing is being built by university students, kept out of class to serve as unpaid labor. All those I spoke to had heard rumors of economic reform but nothing definite. For years, 2012 was seen as a turning-point; the regime had promised that this year the country would become strong and prosperous. For those who dared hope, like Mrs. Kim, the reality is soul-destroying.
MRS. KIM: (Through translator) We believed that in 2012, North Korea would become a strong country where everyone would have enough to eat, and dogs would eat rice cakes. But life is harder now. I think there's no hope.
(SOUNDBITE OF MUSIC)
UNIDENTIFIED MAN: (Foreign language spoken)
LIM: Those empty promises of strength and prosperity could be one factor behind this latest rocket launch. After all, the year isn't over yet and even technologically-advanced South Korea hasn't yet managed to launch a satellite. In the absence of other major achievements, North Korea's young leader may need this boost.
Louisa Lim, NPR News, Beijing.
(SOUNDBITE OF MUSIC)
MONTAGNE: Later today on ALL THINGS CONSIDERED, you'll hear alarming first-hand accounts of how much harder life has become for ordinary North Koreans, despite better harvests.
(SOUNDBITE OF MUSIC)
MONTAGNE: You're listening to MORNING EDITION, from NPR News. Transcript provided by NPR, Copyright NPR.